Pdf Online Caliban and the Witch Women the Body and Primitive Accumulation ↠ Silvia Federici – dedelicate.com
Pdf Online Caliban and the Witch Women the Body and Primitive Accumulation ↠ Silvia Federici – dedelicate.com
Ncreasing population meant forcing women to be compliant not only to their husbands but also to the needs of the society generally The link between witch burning and reproduction is discussed at length here particularly around the se of contraceptives and other forms of birth control that were not only made illegal but that their His Long-Lost Family use and advice given on this were punishable by death Many witches were labelled as such and murdered due to the assistance they provided around birth control Many were old women past their ability to produce offspring or even work The cui bono vision of such processes would see the labelling of such women as witches as convenient to say the least Their murder simultaneously serving a range of objectives not least in removing from the village a mouth to feed but also in keeping others in their place The tortures these women were subjected to would be guaranteed to ensure other women would think twice before stepping out of lineThe murder of homosexuals was also related to this idea of prohibiting non reproductive sex Interestingly this book provides the origins of two wordssed to describe homosexual men I d always wondered about One is faggot which is linked here to the faggots of sticks Second Sisters Series Boxed Set used in preparing the fires to burn people and the other is the Italian word for homosexual finocchio fennel I ve asked so many Italians why this might mean homosexual and no one has been able to tell me but it turns out that fennel was often placed on the firessed to burn people so as to help cover the stench of their burning flesh Sometimes it is very hard to not actively dislike humansThe author compares the treatment of women with that of the subjugated peoples of the New World In fact the accusations of devil worship cannibalism and so on are nearly identical I hadn t realised that Caliban the sprite like character from The Tempest had become something of a third world hero in the sense of people saying we are all Caliban as a means of identifying as oppressedThis is a fascinating book and about a history I have known far too little about It is highly readable but also packed to overflowing with fascinating insights I m kind of obsessed with this book Oh my This book I kept wanting to devour the whole thing but I had to stop every few pages because it overwhelmed me so much I haven t learned so much from one book in a very long time Parts of this were The Bride Wore Scarlet uite emotional for me It s not often that non fiction gets me chokedp Looking back at the history of peasant subjugation land privatization witch hunting and the creation of capitalism from a historical perpsective made our human errors seem so brazen and clear I just can t believe we let this all happen We spend so much time arguing about different things in our society racism sexism ineuality poverty the role of the state etc but if we don t have an nderstanding of what gave rise to the status o there is no way we can realistically hope to change it I am terrible at writing book reviews But this is seriously one of the most incredible books I have ever read Federici blew my mind If this is what reading feminist Marxist works is always like GIMME SOME MOREIn short you simply must must must read it ASAP It s pretty hard for me to give a book five stars and I m tempted to give that to CalibanI recently read this with some of my friends in a reading group and not only really enjoyed it but it made me rethink a number of Super interesting book about the transition from feudalism to capitalism and how capitalism intersected with the witch hunts to oppress and demonize women As I read about capitalism I find it such an injustice that I did not learn about it in high school or even college though I recognize my own pper middle class bac Look I m a communist and a feminist but I cannot in good conscience give this wildly imaginative history than one star Th Who Were the Witches Patriarchal Terror and the Creation of CapitalismAlex KnightNovember 5 2009This Halloween season there is no book I could recommend highly than Silvia Federici s brilliant Caliban and the Witch Women the Body and Primitive Accumulation which tells the dark saga of the Witch Hunt that consumed Europe for than 200 years In ncovering this forgotten history Federici exposes the origins of capitalism in the heightened oppression of workers represented by Shakespeare s character Caliban and most strikingly in the brutal subjugation of women She also brings to light the enormous and colorful European peasant movements that fought against the injustices of their time connecting their defeat to the imposition of a new patriarchal order that divided male from female workers Today as and people How to Write Erotica uestion thesefulness of a capitalist system that has thrown the world into crisis Caliban and the Witch stands out as essential reading for nmasking the shocking violence and ineuality that capitalism has relied pon from its very creationWho Were the WitchesParents putting a pointed hat on their young son or daughter before Trick or Treating might never pause to wonder this Soldiers Pregnancy Protocol uestion seeing witches as just another cartoonish Halloween icon like Frankenstein s monster or Dracula But deep within our ritual lies a hidden history that can tells important truths about our world as the legacy of past events continues to affect Behind the Throne (Morgan Crowe Trilogy, us 500 years later In this book Silvia Federici takess back in time to show how the mysterious figure of the witch is key to nderstanding the creation of capitalism the profit motivated economic system that now reigns over the entire planetDuring the 15th 17th centuries the fear of witches was ever present in Europe and Colonial America so much so that if a woman was accused of witchcraft she could face the cruellest of torture ntil confession was given or even be executed based on suspicion alone There was often no evidence whatsoever The author recounts for than two centuries in several European countries hundreds of thousands of women were tried tortured burned alive or hanged accused of having sold body and soul to the devil and by magical means murdered scores of children sucked their blood made potions with their flesh caused the death of their neighbors destroyed cattle and crops raised storms and performed many other abominations 169 In other words just about anything bad that might or might not have happened was blamed on witches during that time So where did this tidal wave of hysteria come from that took the lives so many poor women most of whom had almost certainly never flown on broomsticks or stirred eye of newt into large black cauldronsCaliban nderscores that the persecution of witches was not just some error of ignorant peasants but in fact the deliberate policy of Church and State the very ruling class of society To put this in perspective today witchcraft would be a far fetched cause for alarm but the fear of hidden terrorists who could strike at any moment because they hate our freedom is widespread Not surprising since politicians and the media have been drilling this frightening message into people s heads for years even though terrorism is a much less likely cause of death than say lack of health care1 And just as the panic over terrorism has enabled today s powers that be to attempt to remake the Middle East this book makes the case that the powers that were of Medieval Europe exploited or invented the fear of witches to remake European society towards a social paradigm that met their interestsInterestingly a major component of both of these crusades was the se of so called shock and awe tactics to astound the population with spectacular displays of force which help to soften A Mighty Big Wish up resistance to drastic ornpopular reforms2 In the case of the Witch Hunt shock therapy was applied through the witch burnings spectacles of such stupefying violence that they apparently paralyzed whole villages and regions into accepting fundamental restructuring of medieval society3 Federici describes a typical witch burning as an important public event which all the members of the community had to attend including the children of the witches especially their daughters who in some cases would be whipped in front of the stake on which they could see their mother burning alive 186The book argues that these gruesome executions not only punished witches but graphically demonstrated the repercussions for any kind of disobedience to the clergy or nobility In particular the witch burnings were meant to terrify women. Estigates the capitalist rationalization of social reproduction She shows how the battle against the rebel body and the conflict between body and mind are essential conditions for the development of labor.
1 oops now all i want to talk about is the enclosures of the commons2 funny how i really like marxist analysis now and again mostly when applied to factors marxists in my experience seriously downplay such as slavery without which capitalism would never have gotten off the ground but like who cares right blah blah wage labor blah3 it is so seful as history as making the western world make sense i want every leftist i know to read it for filling in the gaps in How Things Got To Where They Are according to marx and foucault who both really like to conveniently ignore stuff i want every neopagan i know to read it because it simultaneously turns the myth of the burning times into an actual history with an actual impact and blows holes in the revitalizednostalgic contemporary practice of witchcraft essentially the reason you can cast yr spells in safety now is they no longer serve as an excuse for a campaign of terror necessary for building the social order nor constitute subversion of that social order4 roving band of medieval heretics who don t really believe in gender and do believe that the second coming of christ means burn shit down is my politics I haven t read a book this fascinating for a while Federici looks at the hundreds of thousands of women who were murdered in Europe in the 16th century after being accused of being witches and shows how this was because of the transition to capitalism and the need to destroy the solidarity between workers through demonizing women and turning men against them She also clearly connects this to imperialism I especially liked how she sed both Foucault and Marx and yet makes important criticisms of both Fascinating and incredibly important book Covers the history of the end of feudalism the rise of capitalism the rise of current patriarchal forms colonialism witch hunts and Makes it clear that capitalism was founded on the oppression of women and with massive resistance every step of the way Shows the importance of reproductive control Talks about the oppressive elements of philosophy from the time Covers so much that it skips some historical detail but it doesn t matter An essential book for correcting the male centred perspectives of today as well as linking social rebellion of now to the past Read this if you re at all interested in feminism or anti capitalismedit i feel obliged to somewhat temper what i said above 18 months later I ve read fragments about problems with historiography in the book particularly and reading bits and pieces people who ve immersed themselves in the witchhunt literature have said from what i The Italians Stolen Bride understand much of the problem is that a lot information and research has come out in the last 30 40 years that gives a very differentnderstanding of the political sociological and legal aspects of it see the problem is this book focuses on older sources and has the problem of not always citing properly which means it The Greek Tycoons Mistress uses some inaccurate information and has only a limited perspective simply because the information wasn t widely available ornderstood at the time the book was written probably as someone who s not read other witch hunt stuff i can t comment in detail and I ve not seen a comprehensive criticism i just think it s important to note and to make sure you don t take all the history as gospel that s not to smear the book and i still stand by it being a very interesting and important book politically and it s still full of Tikki Tikki Tembo useful history just wanted to putp some new information This book is really something else I can t recommend it too highly In Capital Marx needs to explain how capitalism got started So he talks about what he calls the primitive accumulation of capital this involves the early capitalists effectively stealing wealth from those around them so they have the initial capital they needed to begin the process of capitalist production and therefore further accumulation of wealth that surplus value brings into being Marx does this to show there is no basis pon which capitalism can argue that a future working class revolution taking the means of production from capitalists is immoral since capitalist wealth is in all senses stolen in the first place The point of this book is in part anyway to show that the primitive accumulation argument Marx ses ignores the part played both by women and the native populations in the new world in providing capitalism with this initial capital impetus along the road to full capitalist developmentAnd so this is the story of centuries of nightmares The transition from feudalism to capitalism gets a pretty good rap as one of human progress you know the metaphors Hoofd in de wolken (Puffin Island used are very much those of a new day dawning we are moving from the dark ages to the enlightenment But for many people and particularly for women and brown skinned people who lived far away the dawning of capitalism was to be plunged intotter darknessOne of the stories that is often told about why capitalism is better than other form of social organisation is the tragedy of the commons that is if there is some land that is owned in common by everyone then the self interest of everyone means that this land that in effect belongs to no one will be over exploited and ickly become worthless to everyone This means that private ownership proves the best means of protecting property And although this theory only became popular last century versions of it were sed in the transition from feudalism as the justification for the enclosure of common lands The author explains that this was necessary because it was only by the peasants being deprived of all access to being able to sustain themselves that they would then be forced to sell their labour to the capitalists The author points out that with the introduction of capitalism the share of production going to those at the bottom of society fell drastically and was not to raise again to the levels that had been enjoyed in late feudalism for a couple of hundred years Often it was women who worked on the commons and what was effectively produced their sustained their families And so enclosing these commons was a direct attack not only on peasant self sufficiency but also on female independent labour both of which was necessary if working in the dark satanic mills was to be seen as an optionThe idea that Capitalism pays workers enough but no than what is necessary for them to reproduction their labour power is a central idea of Marxist theory of surplus value but reproduction in all its senses would be impossible without the His Convenient Highland Wedding unpaid labour of women Effectively thisnpaid labour is all that allows the economy to operate reproducing labour power by providing food to male workers as well as providing the next generation of workers from their wombs And when women were employed doing the same work as men they were always paid significantly less this was legally true Secret Hideout (Cooper, up to the end of the last century and is de facto true even today All of which sustained capitalist profits and therefore accelerated the process of primitive accumulationTheestion she asks here that is probably most troubling is what role did the witch hunts play in the early years of capitalist development Again we like to think of feudalism as the irrational form of society that became obsessed with witches and witch craft think Monty Python s Holy Grail but as is made horribly clear in this book witch craft became a terrible problem that needed to be addressed mostly nder capitalism and with some estimating that as many as a million women murdered by the Inuisition and other pogroms although this seems to have been revised down to between 100000 and half a million stillthese are terrifying figures The Inuisition was not nearly as vicious as the protestant churches were in pursuing witches and as Weber makes clear Protestant churches were ite closely linked to the development of capitalism particularly around their personal relationship with god The author stresses that there needed to be a new relationship within families to support the needs of capitalism and one of these was a division of labour that included Regency Improprieties unpaid work in family reproduction performed by women not just having babies but also in other family maintenance tasks This meant that all other activities women had previously done were either devalued or taken from them This included midwifery surely something that had always been a female occupation but that then became a male onender early capitalismThe need for an CALIBAN AND THE WITCH is a history of the body in the transition to capitalism Moving from the peasant revolts of the late Middle Ages to the witch hunts and the rise of mechanical philosophy Federici inv.
Free read Caliban and the Witch Women the Body and Primitive Accumulation
Into accepting a new patriarchal order where women s bodies their labor their sexual and reproductive powers were placed Cinderella Bride under the control of the state and transformed into economic resources 170 Federici puts forward thatp ntil the 16th century though living in a sexist society European women retained significant economic independence from men that they typically do not nder capitalism where gender roles are distinguished She goes on If we also take into account that in medieval society collective relations prevailed over familial ones and most of the tasks that female serfs performed washing spinning harvesting and tending to animals on the commons were done in cooperation with other women we then realize this was a source of power and protection for women It was the basis for an intense female sociality and solidarity that enabled women to stand Mistletoe Hero (4 Seasons in Mistletoe up to men But the Witch Hunt initiated a period where women were forced to become what she calls servants of the male work force 115 excluded from receiving a wage they were confined to thenpaid labor of raising children caring for the elderly and sick nurturing their husbands or partners and maintaining the home In Federici s words this was the housewifization of women the reduction to a second class status where women became totally dependent on the income of men 27Federici goes on to show how female sexuality which was seen as a source of women s potential power over men became an object of suspicion and came nder sharp attack by the authorities The assault manifested in new laws that took away women s control over the reproductive process such as the banning of birth control measures the replacement of midwives with male doctors and the outlawing of abortion and infanticide4 Federici calls this an attempt to turn the female body into a machine for the reproduction of labor such that women s only purpose in life was supposedly to produce children 144 But we also learn that this was just one component of a broader move by Church and State to ban all forms of sexuality that were considered non productive For example homosexuality sex between young and old sex between people of different classes anal coitus coitus from behind nudity and dances Also proscribed was the public collective sexuality that had prevailed in the Middle Ages as in the Spring festivals of pagan origins that in the 16th century were still celebrated all over Europe 194 To this end the Witch Hunt targeted not only female sexuality but homosexuality and gender non conformity as well helping to craft the patriarchal sexual boundaries that define our society to this dayCapitalism Born in FlamesWhat separates Caliban from other works exploring the witch phenomenon is that this book puts the persecution of witches into the context of the development of capitalism For Silvia Federici it s no accident that the witch hunt occurred simultaneously with the colonization and extermination of the populations of the New World the English enclosures or the beginning of the slave trade 164 She instructs that all of these seemingly nrelated tragedies were initiated by the same European ruling elite at the very moment that capitalism was in formation the late 15th through 17th centuries Contrary to laissez faire orthodoxy which holds that capitalism functions best without state intervention Federici posits that it was precisely the state violence of these campaigns that laid the foundation for capitalist economicsThankfully for the reader who may not be very familiar with the history of this era Federici outlines these events in clear and accessible language She focuses on the Land Enclosures in particular because their significance has been largely lost in time Many of The Potato Chip Puzzles (The Puzzling World of Winston Breen us will not remember that during Europe s Middle Ages even the lowliest of serfs had their own plot of land with which they couldse for just about any purpose Federici adds With the Master of Her Virtue use of land also came these of the commons meadows forests lakes wild pastures that provided crucial resources for the peasant economy wood for fuel timber for building fishponds grazing grounds for animals and fostered community cohesion and cooperation 24 This access to land acted as a buffer providing security for peasants who otherwise were mostly subject to the whim of their Lord Not only could they grow their own food or hunt in the relatively plentiful forests which were still standing in that era but connection to the commons also gave peasants territory with which to organize resistance movements and alternative economies outside the control of their mastersThe Enclosures were a process by which this land was taken away closed off by the State and typically handed over to entrepreneurs to pursue a profit in sheep or cow herding or large scale agriculture Instead of being sed for subsistence as it had been the land s bounty was sold off to fledgling national and international markets A new class of profit motivated landowners emerged known as gentry but the nderside of this development was the trauma experienced by the evicted peasants In the author s words As soon as they lost access to land all workers were plunged into a dependence nknown in medieval times as their landless condition gave employers the power to cut their pay and lengthen the working day 72 For Federici then the chief creation of the Enclosures was a property less landless working class a proletariat who were left with little option but to work for a wage in order to survive wage labor being one of the defining features of capitalismCut off from their traditional soil many communities scattered across the countryside to find new homesteads But the State countered with the so called Bloody Laws which made it legal to capture wandering vagabonds and force them to work for a wage or put them to death Federici tells the result What followed was the absolute impoverishment of the European working class Evidence is the change that occurred in the workers diets Meat disappeared from their tables except for a few scraps of lard and so did beer and wine salt and olive oil 77 Although European workers typically labored for longer hours nder their new capitalist employers living standards were reduced sharply throughout the 16th century and it wasn t ntil the middle of the 19th century that earnings returned to the level they had been before the Enclosures5According to Federici the witch hunts played a key role in facilitating this process by driving a sexist wedge into the working class that ndermined class solidarity making it difficult for communities to resist displacement 48 And while women were faced with the threat of horrific torture and death if they did not conform to new submissive gender roles men were in effect bribed with the promise of obedient wives and new access to women s bodies The author cites that Another aspect of the divisive sexual politics to diffuse workers protest was the institutionalization of prostitution implemented through the opening of municipal brothels soon proliferating throughout Europe 49 And in addition to prostitution a legalization of sexual violence provided further sanction for the exploitation of women s bodies She explains In France the municipal authorities practically decriminalized rape provided the victims were women of the lower class 47The witch trials were the final assault which all but obliterated the integrity of peasant communities by fostering mutual suspicion and fear Amidst deteriorating conditions neighbors were encouraged to turn against one another so that any insult or annoyance became grounds for an accusation of witchcraft As the terror spread a new era was forged in the flames of the witch burnings Surveying the damage Silvia Federici concludes that the persecution of the witches in Europe as in the New World was as important as colonization and the expropriation of the European peasantry from its land were for the development of capitalism 12A Forgotten RevolutionFederici maintains that it didn t have to turn out this way Capitalism was not the only possible response to the crisis of feudal power Throughout Europe vast communalistic social movements and rebellions against feudalism had offered the promise of a new egalitarian society built on social euality and cooperation 61Caliban s most inspiring chapters make visible an enormous continent wide series of poor people s movements that nearly toppled Church and State at the end of the Middle Ages Continue review at. Power and self ownership two central principles of modern social organizationIt is both a passionate work of memory recovered and a hammer of humanity's agenda Peter Linebaugh author of The London Hanged.
Silvia Federici born 1942 Parma Italy is a scholar teacher and activist from the radical autonomist feminist Marxist tradition She is a professor emerita and Teaching Fellow at Hofstra University where she was a social science professor She worked as a teacher in Nigeria for many years is also the co founder of the Committee for Academic Freedom in Africa and is a member of the Midnight